In 1948, what animals were discovered to have superstitions?

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1In 1948, what animals were discovered to have superstitions?
The first description of superstitious behavior in animals came from psychologist B.F. Skinner in 1948. He put half-starved pigeons in cages, offering them a few seconds of access to food trays at …
https://www.livescience.com/14504-superstitions-evolutionary-basis-lucky-charms.html

2Superstition

A superstition is any belief or behavior based upon one’s trust in luck or other irrational, unscientific, or supernatural forces. Often, it arises from ignorance, a misunderstanding of science or causality, a belief in fate or magic, or fear of that which is unknown. It is commonly applied to beliefs and practices surrounding luck, prophecy, and certain spiritual beings, particularly the …
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superstitions

3In 1948, what animals were discovered to have superstitions?
Superstitions in animals was first reported in 1948 by psychologist B.F. Skinner 11 12. In his study, half-starved pigeons were placed in cages and food trays were presented to them for a few seconds repeatedly.
https://the-gist.org/2019/12/is-the-black-cat-crossing-your-path-more-superstitious-than-you/

4In 1948, what animals were discovered to have superstitions?
What Skinner Discovered. By the end of the study, three quarters of the birds had become superstitious. One pigeon, in pursuit of food, believed that by turning around in the cage twice or three times between being fed, but not just in any direction; the bird learnt to turn anti-clockwise and appeared to believe that this would mean it being fed.
https://www.psychologistworld.com/superstition

5In 1948, what animals were discovered to have superstitions?
Animals and death seem to have a strong connection in the world of superstitions. A bat flying around the house thrice, a bird entering the house, and dogs howling when some family member is sick–all are considered bad omens, which hint at the possible death of some family member.
https://mysticurious.com/superstitious-beliefs

6In 1948, what animals were discovered to have superstitions?
allows a researcher to have control over when the animal receives reinforcement, such as pellets of food. The early conditioning boxes also contained a lever which, if pressed, would cause some food to be dispensed. If a rat (rats were used in Skinner’s earliest work) was placed in one of these boxes, it would eventually, through trial and …
https://www.lcps.org/cms/lib4/VA01000195/Centricity/Domain/3563/40%20Studies/Knock_Wood.pdf

7In 1948, what animals were discovered to have superstitions?
In fact, a 2010 study found that superstitions can sometimes work, because believing in something can improve performance on a task. Here, then, are 13 of the most common superstitions. Beginner’s …
https://www.livescience.com/14141-13-common-silly-superstitions.html

8In 1948, what animals were discovered to have superstitions?
In folklore found in both the European Middle Ages and traditional African cultures, vampires and wicked spirits were considered to possess obsessive-compulsive traits. Hence, a malevolent spirit would have to stop to count all the broom’s bristles, exposing a sinister entity that attempted to disguise itself as the bride or groom.
https://www.huffpost.com/entry/13-superstitions-that-sti_b_6648484

9Superstitious

A notable exception, however, is found in the introduction to the popular book of Shermer (1998). This argues that superstitions are the adaptive outcome of a general ‘belief engine’, which evolved to both reduce anxiety (proximate cause) and enable humans to make causal associations (ultimate cause) (Tinbergen 1963; West et al. 2007).
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2615824/

10In 1948, what animals were discovered to have superstitions?
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https://www.tampabay.com/features/humaninterest/two-feet-from-clearwaters-past-fathers-funny-legacy-leaves-a-deep/2159682/

News results

12 IIT Bombay students discovered the asteroid that flew closest to Earth
Two students from IIT Bombay have discovered the asteroid known to have flown closest past Earth this week. Dubbed 2020 QG, the asteroid passed 2,950 km above the southern Indian Ocean in the early hours of 16 August.
https://theprint.in/scientifix/2-iit-bombay-students-discovered-the-asteroid-that-flew-closest-to-earth/487145/
Published Date: 2020-08-25T00:10:00.0000000Z

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1  Black Cat The Most Common Superstition II When A Color Became A Curse To An Animal
Superstition follows us everywhere, When our brains can’t explain something, we make stuff up. In fact, a 2010 study found that superstitions can sometimes work, because believing in something can improve performance on a task. Black cats ARE ONE of the most common superstitions. the tradition of cats being bad luck come from Egypt, cats were …
Watch Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eifIcYWMbMQ

Wikipedia based search results

1Superstition
superstitions. Identifying something as superstition is generally pejorative. Items referred to as such in common parlance are commonly referred to as…
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superstition

2B. F. Skinner
formation of superstition in one of his favorite experimental animals, the pigeon. Skinner placed a series of hungry pigeons in a cage attached to an automatic…
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B. F. Skinner

3Animal rights
Animal rights is the idea in which some, or all, animals are entitled to the possession of their own existence and that their most basic interests—such…
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal rights