which planet was discovered by mathematical prediction before it was directly observed?

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1Discovery of Neptune

The planet Neptune was mathematically predicted before it was directly observed. With a prediction by Urbain Le Verrier, telescopic observations confirming the existence of a major planet were made on the night of September 23–24, 1846, at the Berlin Observatory, by astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle (assisted by Heinrich Louis d’Arrest), working from Le Verrier’s calculations.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discovery_of_Neptune

2which planet was discovered by mathematical prediction before it was directly observed?
It was discovered by the fact that it showed a disk when viewed through even a fairly low powered telescope. The only other planets which have been discovered are Neptune and Pluto. These were predicted using ingenious mathematical arguments based on Newton’s laws of gravitation and then observed near their predicted locations.
https://mathshistory.st-andrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Neptune_and_Pluto/

3Neptune

The French astronomer Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier and the British astronomer John Couch Adams independently predicted the existence and position of the planet Neptune using only mathematics—a pivotal event in the history of astronomy. Neptune, whose existence was visually confirmed in 1846, was the first planet to be discovered by mathematical rather than observational means.
http://www.historyofinformation.com/detail.php?entryid=4464

4Discovery of Neptune

Neptune – Neptune – Neptune’s discovery: Neptune is the only giant planet that is not visible without a telescope. Having an apparent magnitude of 7.8, it is approximately one-fifth as bright as the faintest stars visible to the unaided eye. Hence, it is fairly certain that there were no observations of Neptune prior to the use of telescopes.
https://www.britannica.com/place/Neptune-planet/Neptunes-discovery

5Neptune

More than 200 years later, the ice giant Neptune became the first planet located through mathematical predictions rather than through regular observations of the sky. Because Uranus didn’t travel exactly as astronomers expected it to, French mathematician Urbain Joseph Le Verrier proposed the position and mass of a then-unknown planet that could cause the observed changes to Uranus’ orbit.
https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/neptune/exploration/

6which planet was discovered by mathematical prediction before it was directly observed?
Uranus was discovered by Sir William Herschel in 1781. Herschel was probably the most famous astronomer of the 18th century. In addition to discovering the planet Uranus, he also observed and cataloged over 800 double stars and 2,500 nebulae. He was the first astronomer to correctly describe the spiral structure of our Milky Way Galaxy.
https://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/questions/question16.html

7which planet was discovered by mathematical prediction before it was directly observed?
In 1515, a Polish priest named Nicolaus Copernicus proposed that the Earth was a planet like Venus or Saturn, and that all planets circled the Sun. Afraid of criticism (some scholars think Copernicus was more concerned about scientific shortcomings of his theories than he was about the Church’s disapproval), he did not publish his theory until 1543, shortly before his death.
https://www.earthobservatory.nasa.gov/features/OrbitsHistory

8which planet was discovered by mathematical prediction before it was directly observed?
For their prediction, Peter Higgs and François Englert, were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2013. In astrophysics such a new ‘particle’ could be the planet Neptune. Its existence was mathematically predicted by Urbain Le Verrier before it was directly observed in 1846 by Johann Gottfried Galle at the Berlin Observatory.
https://creation.com/dark-radiation-in-big-bang-cosmology

9which planet was discovered by mathematical prediction before it was directly observed?
When Pluto was discovered in 1930, … the observed orbit of Uranus matches the predictions. … Pluto’s moons cross directly in front of or beyond Pluto as they orbit. This was the situation from 1985 to 1990. This will not happen again until the early 22 nd century.
https://biblicalscienceinstitute.com/astronomy/worlds-of-creation-pluto-part-1/

10which planet was discovered by mathematical prediction before it was directly observed?
Pluto was initially discovered in the context of a search for an unknown planet purported to be the cause of unexplained perturbations in the outer planets. After Uranus was discovered in 1781, astronomers calculated the orbit of that planet and made predictions about exactly where it should be located at various times in the future.
http://www.ldolphin.org/unruh/planet/ch4ph.html

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1  Discovery of Neptune – Video Learning – WizScience.com
The planet Neptune was mathematically predicted before it was directly observed. With a prediction by Urbain Le Verrier, telescopic observations confirming the existence of a major planet were made on the night of September 23–24, 1846, at the Berlin Observatory, by astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle , working from Le Verrier’s calculations …
Watch Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NO1C2wSmkso

Wikipedia based search results

1Neptune
visible to the unaided eye and is the only planet in the Solar System found by mathematical prediction rather than by empirical observation. Unexpected changes…
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neptune

2Ceres (dwarf planet)
asteroid to be discovered (by Giuseppe Piazzi at Palermo Astronomical Observatory on 1 January 1801). It was originally considered a planet, but was reclassified…
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceres (dwarf planet)

3Planets beyond Neptune
for the observed discrepancies in the orbits of the outer planets. Lowell’s "prediction" had been a coincidence: If there was a Planet X, it was not Pluto…
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planets beyond Neptune